Smart Cities Challenge Final Proposal

Present your smart cities journey, including:

  • How your final proposal carries through the vision laid out in your Challenge Statement and the outcomes in your application, and provides reasonable justification of any variations
  • How your outcomes continue to be:
    • reflective of the true needs of the community, as demonstrated through a compelling body of data and evidence and extensive resident engagement
    • ambitious and achievable
    • meaningful for the community and its residents
    • well-suited to a smart cities approach
    • measurable
  • Progress towards outcomes that may have been achieved during the finalist phase
  • Reasons to be selected as a winner

Evaluation criteria

  • Final proposal carries through the vision laid out in the application
  • Final proposal is transformative, scalable, and replicable within the community and to other communities in Canada

Chapter 1 – Vision

Our Challenge Statement reads:

By means of active, cross-generational, technology-empowered, real-world participation in the intergenerational transfer of traditional Nishnaabe knowledge through the medium of our language, and the bilingual delivery of modern K-12 STEM knowledge, our community will transform our youth into better-educated, more-employable, better-grounded, and more holistically Nishnaabe people.

Please see Figure 1-1 for a graphical representation of the “bilingual delivery of modern K-12 STEM knowledge” which we propose in our Challenge Statement.

Our final proposal will carry out the vision of our Challenge Statement and will produce the outcomes laid out in our application.

Our final proposal seeks to achieve the four outcomes listed in our Challenge Statement:

  1. youth who are “better-educated” due to
    1. their having successfully completed a greater number of K-12 STEM subjects post-proposal implementation than they successfully completed pre-proposal implementation; and
    2. their increased preparedness for college and university as a result of their having successfully completed a greater number of K-12 STEM subjects post-proposal implementation than they successfully completed pre-proposal implementation;

    This outcome is measurable via these progress indicators:

    • Increase in number of K-12 STEM courses successfully completed by K-12 students, beyond what is currently offered in our K-12 curriculum
    • Decrease in percentage of K-12 students needing remedial help in STEM subject areas

  2. youth who are “more-employable” in current jobs, as well as in yet-to-be-known types of STEM-related jobs, which require knowledge / expertise in the K-12 STEM subject areas;

    This outcome is measurable via these progress indicators:

    • Increase in number of K-12 STEM courses successfully completed by K-12 students, beyond what is currently offered in our K-12 curriculum
    • Increase in number of K-12 students who have at least a basic ability to code

  3. youth who are “better-grounded” in their Nishnaabe identity due to
    1. their knowledge of our core aadsookaanan; and
    2. their increased participation in our community’s traditional Nishnaabe activities;

    This outcome is measurable via these progress indicators:

    • Increase in number of K-12 students who know the key concepts expressed in each of our core aadsookaanan
    • Increase in number of traditional Nishnaabe activities in which each K-12 student, on average, participates per year

  4. youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe” due to
    1. their ability to nearly-completely understand our spoken Nishnaabe language; and
    2. their increased participation in our community’s traditional Nishnaabe activities; and
    3. their knowledge of the roles of our Nishnaabe worldview in modern technological society

    This outcome is measurable via these progress indicators:

    • Number of hours of Nishnaabe language acquired by graduating eighth-graders is at least 2,000 hours
    • Increase in number of traditional Nishnaabe activities in which each K-12 student, on average, participates per year
    • Number of hours of Nishnaabe-language STEM video successfully completed by graduating high school seniors is at least 1,000 hours

The way in which our final proposal carries out the vision of the Challenge Statement, achieving our four outcomes, is via the following six activities/projects:

  1. “active participation”

    We mean active in contrast to passive, where active participation includes engaged Khan Academy-style Growth Mindset blended learning pedagogical approaches – approaches which take into account the recent discoveries on how humans beings more effectively learn knowledge in online and hybrid (online and brick-and-mortar, combined) environments; calls to real-world action on our online, mobile-enabled platform (particularly on the eLearning, eAcquisition, and meetup forum functionalities of the platform), online forums, and online community discussions; real-world, hands-on activities undertaken and completed in a group setting, our youth wrapped in the embrace of the community network; strong encouragement to attend community events, with those community events effectively and articulately made known to all community members via our online forums and discussions.

    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe.” Community-engagement is a foundational component of our Nishnaabe way of living. Actively participating, not just in social activities – which are, indeed, foundationally important to community vibrancy and individual flourishing – but also being actively engaged in our own learning – both formal and informal – is a key to success in whatever role a Nishnaabe individual plays in the community. Actively participating in the whole of the Nishnaabe community is an imperatively important requisite for one’s wellness as a Nishnaabe person.
    • youth who are “better-grounded” in their Nishnaabe identity. Our Nishnaabe people cannot be only knowledgeable of our social norms and ways of being. This knowledge must be implemented in one’s life in order for one to be a whole Nishnaabe person. Similarly, much knowledge can be obtained through the very act of active participation in one’s community. Knowledge and active participation are thus connected. Active participation leads to knowledge. Knowledge, in turn, leads to active participation. In order for a Nishnaabe person, then, to be more knowledgeable – better-grounded – in being Nishnaabe, active participation in the Nishnaabe community is required.

  2. “cross-generational participation”

    Cross-generational participation means not just youth/students, but community members from the entire span of ages, from all generations.
    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe.” Similar to the reasons given in the above section on the active participation requisite for one’s being holistically Nishnaabe, all sectors of our Nishnaabe community must have a space and a place to participate. Each age group brings a diverse set of experiences, gifts, and knowledge to our collective Nishnaabe community, and to the overall wholeness of each of the individuals within the community. The participation of everyone, from all generations, is required for each of us to be holistically Nishnaabe.
    • youth who are “better-grounded” in their Nishnaabe identity. We Nishnaabe people believe that everyone – no matter one’s age – is a teacher and a contributor to the collective’s knowledgebase. Encouraging and ensuring the participation of all generations provides a maximally diverse dataset of experience as knowledge, made available to and learnable by each and every Nishnaabe community member who participates in community events. This cross-generational participation leads thusly to better-grounded Nishnaabe community members.
  3. “technology-empowered participation”

    Technology-empowered participation refers to engagement with the eLearning and eAcquisition functionalities of the Open edX platform; engagement in Open edX’s meetup discussion forums for traditional Nishnaabe activities; online platform discoverability of friends’/relatives’ locations and currently-happening traditional activities in order to encourage students to, in like manner, take part in those made-discoverable activities.

    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “better-educated.” Knowing not just about technology, but being – and being comfortable – in a technology-oriented mindset, versed in the social expectations and norms of this modern way of interacting with our technological world is prerequisite knowledge and an imperatively important education to have. Just being able to navigate this brave new world of technology is a plus on one’s curriculum vitae, and our proposal’s implementation will yield for our Nishnaabe youth exactly that: a better education through the experience of successfully participating in this new technology as a means to better one’s self educationally.
    • youth who are “more employable.” The technology-empowered participatory tools – the rules of online community engagement – that will benefit our Nishnaabe youth are, in many cases, the precise job skills required to even be considered for a job interview. Online forum etiquette, respecting boundaries of online relationships, being responsive to and responsible for timely replies to online community engagement requests and relationships, and a host of other modern technological communication social norms – the very skills and education that our proposal will instill in our Nishnaabe youth – are what will help prepare our Nishnaabe youth to be effectively and productively employed in today’s – and the future’s – job market.

  4. “real-world participation”

    Smart technology is an enabling factor, a factor which enables real-world participation – not just online participation, but participation in the real, material world. The world of touchable human beings, hugs, babies, tears, family, and love. Our proposal intends to implement this technology to facilitate and encourage participation in real-world community events.

    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe.” Being Nishnaabe means being community-oriented. Participating and being an active, contributing part of the lives of those whom we are networked within our territory is a requirement of our communal approach to effective and productive existence on this earth. Participating in the real world, the material world, of our Nishnaabe community is thus a requirement of being a whole Nishnaabe.
    • youth who are “better-grounded” in their Nishnaabe identity. Being better grounded means being better educated. And being better educated happens, in part, by being around the educated and knowledgeable ones. For Nishnaabe people, all activities are a teaching opportunity – and thus a learning opportunity. Being out and about in the community leads naturally to discussions with people more knowledgeable than us, which in turn leads to becoming more knowledgeable ourselves – more educated, and thus better grounded.

  5. “intergenerational transfer of traditional Nishnaabe knowledge through the medium of our language”

    Our proposal aims to produce 2,000 hours of Nishnaabe-language immersion video, the content of which will be our core aadsookaanan (our sacred stories, our philosophical foundations, the building blocks of our worldview). Our aadsookaanan are, in part, the imperatively important intergenerational knowledge which has been passed on – in story form – for countless generations. The acquisition – language acquisition (subconscious) in contrast to language learning (cognitive) – of 2,000 hours of a target language yields an individual who can nearly-completely comprehend that target language. The target language in this case is our Nishnaabe language, and it is with this 2,000 hours of immersion video of our aadsookaanan that we intend to create understanders of our Nishnaabe language – understanders who can then go on to successfully complete 1,000 hours of STEM subject non-immersion video (i.e., what we usually refer to in this proposal as ‘bilingual STEM video’), the audio of which is delivered in our Nishnaabe language.

    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe.” Being a whole Nishnaabe requires that one be a speaker of one’s Nishnaabe language. While this proposal is not big enough to facilitate that particular outcome, becoming an understander of our Nishnaabe language is, indeed, attainable within the timeframe of this proposal. And, since we are aiming for “more” holistically Nishnaabe, becoming an understander of our Nishnaabe language fits the bill quite nicely. Two points here: (1) being able to understand one’s indigenous/heritage language, for a member of any culture, seems obviously contributory to one’s being more holistically of that culture and identity; and (2) walking around in the world with a headful of knowledge that got into one’s head via a foreign language does not make for a very “holistically Nishnaabe” person. While knowledge and education are important in their own right, it is more holistic for that knowledge and education to have entered one’s head in the medium of one’s own indigenous/heritage language. So, our youth being able to understand our Nishnaabe language which in turn makes possible their learning content of a modern K-12 STEM curriculum delivered in the medium of our Nishnaabe language is a powerful contributor to their becoming more holistically Nishnaabe.
    • youth who are “better-grounded” in their Nishnaabe identity. Knowing about one’s cultural identity is self-evidently important to one’s wholeness. But, knowing the main tenets of the core philosophies of one’s culture is absolutely key to one’s being well versed in the oral/written stories/literature of one’s culture – especially when one considers the importance of learning this information through the medium of one’s language. Learning the main ideas expressed in our Nishnaabe aadsookaanan, through the medium of our Nishnaabe language, produces Nishnaabe youth who are more knowledgeable of, thus better-grounded in, their Nishnaabe identity.
  6. “bilingual delivery of modern K-12 STEM knowledge”

    This activity/project refers to the combination of our English-language K-12 STEM curriculum and the 1,000 hours of bilingual (Nishnaabe-language and English-language) STEM video. Please see Figure 1-1 for a graphical representation of this post-augmented curriculum. Our bilingual STEM video will, in part, teach our grade 9-12 students about the role of our Nishnaabe worldview in modern technological society. In particular, our bilingual STEM video will show that there is no conflict in the explanations provided by modern-day STEM and our Nishnaabe worldview. More specifically, our bilingual STEM video will enlighten our students about the relationship between the teachings of our aadsookaanan (which we can refer to with more culturally-neutral terminology as ‘allegorical narratives,’ or simply ‘mythology’) and STEM: the role of science is to explain/show/teach what is; the role of mythology is to explain/show/teach why (metaphysically why) something is.

    For example, the scientific explanation of lightning and thunder (that lightning is a huge electrical discharge that flows between clouds, from a cloud to air, or from a cloud to the ground; and that thunder is in turn caused by lightning), and our Nishnaabe worldview explanation of this same phenomenon (that thunder beings are engaged in an eternal battle with the great underwater lynx; an allegory for the eternal battle between good and bad). Only in modern times have these two traditions (i.e., mythology and science) been viewed by some as ‘in conflict,’ or ‘in competition.’ Historically, however, throughout the world’s indigenous societies, at least, mythology has made science more culturally fitting – not tried to compete with, nor replace the role of, science.

    Mythology has not, historically, tried to do the work of the STEM fields. Mythology and STEM have, historically, been partners in explaining the world around us in a culturally-appropriate – and usually quite poetic – manner. In similar fashion, this is the function of our bilingual STEM video, and the role of our bilingual delivery of modern K-12 STEM knowledge, in general: to explain the scientific, material world around us in a culturally-appropriate – and usually poetic – manner. This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    This activity/project achieves the following outcomes:

    • youth who are “better-educated.” The need of this generation of K-12 students for a solid STEM subject area education is undeniable. One need only browse the course descriptions or syllabi of almost any college/university curriculum to find the very long list of requisite technology, math, science, programming knowledge for those majors and academic program paths. Providing our youth with thirteen years of a modern, K-12 STEM curriculum will provide them with the tools, knowledge, and mindset to succeed in the increasingly demanding curriculum of this modern technologically-driven world.
    • youth who are “more employable.” For reasons similar to the ones given in the above paragraph, our youth who have successfully completed our bilingual, modern K-12 STEM curriculum will not only be better prepared for college and university. The college and university curriculums are being designed, in part, to produce graduates who are more employable in this technologically-driven world and job market. Our youth, having completed such solid preparation as provided for them by our K-12 STEM curriculum, will thus be more employable. And, not only after college/university; but, also in the high- school graduate job market, as well.
    • youth who are “more holistically Nishnaabe.” One’s having been educated in a particular subject area is an accomplishment on its own. Having been educated in a particular subject area in the medium of one’s indigenous/heritage language, with that education couched in the worldview and perspective of one’s mythology and culture, is an even greater accomplishment; and, an accomplishment contributing greatly to one’s wholeness as a member of that language community.

The achievement of our six activities/projects, and their consequent four outcomes, are enabled by the creation of an online, mobile-enabled platform able to carry out the following three functions. We have chosen the Open edX platform for this purpose. (While we originally envisioned having three separate platforms/applications for each of the three functions, we have, during the finalist phase, opted to wrap all three of these functions into one ‘Learning Management System’ (LMS) platform, namely Open edX.) Open edX is open source software and facilitates the production of materials to be made available under a Creative Commons license. The three functions being fulfilled by the Open edX platform are:

  1. eLearning. Mobile-enabled eLearning functionality is built into Open edX with open source technologies and languages, enabling interoperable, scalable, and replicable results by any other community or organization choosing to implement a similar platform. eLearning functionality will facilitate the collection of real-time data on all aspects of community-based, online, collaborative learning, and the storage of that data in an open source database backend enabling other departments and organizations within our Biigtigong Nishnaabeg community to seamlessy access and utilize this data.
  2. eAcquistion. Mobile-enabled eAcquisition functionality will be nearly identical to our eLearning functionality, but will have the added responsibility of enabling the effective acquisition of our Nishnaabe language. As our community makes a strong distinction between language learning (a conscious, cognitive process) and language acquisition (which occurs subconsciously), we need to keep these two functionalities independent of each other so that each one’s unique pedagogical approach can be implemented effectively.
  3. meetup forum. Mobile-enabled meetup forum functionality will serve as the central ‘online gathering’ place which will facilitate the bridging and interfacing of the digital world with the material, real world. All community members will have access to each other via this online gathering place. This functionality within Open edX is where our youth who are hoping to attend a particular traditional Nishnaabe activity can express their interest to do so. Other community members then have the ability to invite our youth along to that event. Likewise, community members who are planning an activity can now express their intentions in the meetup forum functionality of Open edX thereby providing additional options for our youth to take part in while remaining in the embrace of the real-world community network.

Our outcomes are reflective of the community needs. We conducted extensive community engagement sessions throughout the development stage of our proposal. These sessions were aimed at specific stakeholders and the community at large, including our off-reserve members. Through presentations, discussions, surveys, small group meetings, family meetings, luncheons, social events, we successfully engaged a large number of our community. 221 unique members attended at least one of our engagement sessions and 121 individuals completed our extensive community survey. Chapter 6 provides the findings from our engagement sessions and how community input improved our proposal.

Firstly, there exist extremely high unemployment rates for our youth, independent of industry. When we consider only the STEM fields, these unemployment rates for our youth are absurdly high. Our proposal will help to alleviate this.

Secondly, this proposal will move Nishnaabe people from being mainly passive consumers of technology to being active, effective STEM-educated administrators, managers, and users of data and connected technology who are able to achieve meaningful outcomes for themselves, their community, and other communities.

Thirdly, our outcomes are ambitious because we, similar to other Nishnaabe/indigenous communities, have only one high-proficiency first-speaker of our dialect. A survivor of the Canadian Indian residential school system, she is 82 years old. We have only another two medium proficiency first-speakers of our dialect. They are both in their 70s. When they leave, so will our dialect.

So, over the last five years, we have been hurriedly working with a high-proficiency second-language speaker of a related dialect. He has spent the last five years working with our elders to reconstruct our dialect. (Our Biigtigong dialect’s noun declension charts, verb conjugation charts, and dictionary are all currently available on our language website,, under a Creative Commons license). He is now able to ‘grammar bridge’ into our Biigtigong dialect from the dialect which he originally acquired; he is thus able to speak and write in our Biigtigong dialect. It is his Nishnaabe-language audio which will be heard on all 3,000 hours of video which our proposal aims to produce.

It is important for us to note here that the method which he used to become a speaker of the Nishnaabe language – he began acquiring the Nishnaabe language almost 20 years ago when he was in his 30s – is the very method of second language acquisition that we’re using in our proposal to transform our Biigtigong youth into understanders of our dialect.

Whether we consider the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, or that the United Nations General Assembly has declared 2019 the International Year of Indigenous Languages (IYIL2019), we have before us – “us” being Canada and we Biigtigong Nishnaabeg – an ambitious opportunity, indeed. An opportunity to move forward. Together. As partners. Collaboratively, we can produce the means by which Nishnaabe people can forever be able to become understanders (on their way to becoming speakers) of the Nishnaabe language. That’s pretty ambitious.

Our outcomes are achievable because a community such as ours, Biigtigong Nishnaabeg, who has for many, many generations been healing, repairing, reconstructing, and unendingly facilitating the education and holistic Nishnaabe being of each and every one of our community members, as a collective unit, as a community, is quite the solid foundation on which to implement this proposal. The outcomes sought by this proposal are quite achievable, indeed.

Our proposal has been met with overwhelming support from our community since the very start of our Smart Cities journey. Biigtigong Nishnaabeg has been working on the revitalization of our language and aadsookaanan many years before we started work on this Smart Cities Challenge. Our Smart Cities final proposal further facilitates profoundly meaningful goals of the community which were set in motion decades ago.

Our chief, Duncan Michano, has, for many years, shared with a great number of people his vision of educating our youth in the ways of physics, engineering, quantum mechanics, computer science, and coding. There has been a marked increase in the community’s excitement around these conversations in the last four or five years in particular. Especially for our young Nishnaabe people. (For example, we already have elementary school-age kids in our community who have gone off to earn a certificate in LEGO Robotics and Programming offered by the Digital Media Academy at University of Toronto.)

Our children and youth have always been the center of our Nishnaabe society. They are, in a very real way, our future. They carry our entire ancient past, and our ongoing present, into the unknown, the future. It is difficult for our community to imagine something more meaningful than the betterment of our youth in this modern technological society while helping them to carry with them, as they move forward into the future, our Nishnaabe language and our Nishnaabe worldview.

The outcomes of our final proposal are, indeed, meaningful for our community and our residents.

Our proposal is very well-suited to a smart cities approach.

By making our language accessible for the first time through an online platform that can be accessible by anyone at anytime. We will also provide a model for integrating immersion education and STEM education into a standard curriculum. K-12 STEM learning can augment immersion-based cultural learning and immersion-based cultural learning can augment K-12 STEM learning.

By preserving as open data, a subset of our language in a certain format (i.e., in the format of understandable language which is able to produce understanders of our language after 2,000 hours of viewing), we not only facilitate the survival and thriving of our language into the future, we are also providing a model for other First Nation communities – as well as other communities and groups – to do the same. This initiative will strengthen the relationship between residents and government and public organizations and will help to fulfill Canada’s goal of reconciliation with First Nation communities.

Currently, our language and aadsookaanan are at risk of being lost. Through the use of connected technology, and by recording this data – including much of our raw cultural data being preserved/made available on Open edX – we are ensuring that our community knowledge is maintained for our Biigtigong Nishnaabeg generations to come, for the benefit of Canadians, and for the benefit of the world. By this democratization of cultural knowledge, we are thus breaking down silos that exist even in our traditional societal structures. Similarly, modern-day administrative and learning management roles of K-12 teachers, of parents, of elders, and of governmental leadership, are also all further facilitated by the increase in frictionless availability of data made possible via the removal of data silos.

We have provided an open source, standardised, and transparent approach to integrating immersion-based cultural education and STEM education into any school curriculum – all of the videos we are producing can be overdubbed in any other language. The approach to building community capacity, through embracing language, culture and STEM can be replicated across the country regardless of a community’s size or resources.

This approach is not limited to one language only. The language in question could also be Cree, Mohawk, French, or Italian, for example. There may be a need across the board – in perhaps most, or even all, cultures – to augment STEM learning with language-based cultural education; a need to combine, merge, and interface the digital connections with physical community. In our approach in this proposal, the meetup facilitation functionality of Open edX achieves this. Our proposal moves us into the future by embracing and continuing to facilitate the merging of the digital-world and the real-world in order to create a truly smart city that uses data, digital connection, and an online platform to enable intergenerational transfer of knowledge – both traditional language and STEM knowledge and education – education to create better-educated, more employable, better-grounded, and more holistically Nishnaabe(in our case) people.

Our approach is suitable for communities of any size, any location, any level of resources, and is easily replicable and scalable. We see our proposal as an ideal ‘onboarding’ approach for any community – almost regardless of access to technology-trained staff – to a more STEM-infused culturally-based/appropriate/infused community. Implementing the bleeding-edge STEM technologies – as a first step – is not, in our opinion, viable for many communities.

The approach we are taking – and advocating for – in our final proposal is not unlike the strategy of early-years Netflix as that company disrupted the DVD-rental industry. Netflix’s secret weapon in their successful venture? The post office! Not the most modern of ‘technology,’ to say the least. While Netflix, of course, employed a host of other approaches and tactics, beyond its utilization of the post office, the company’s achieved outcomes are still remarkable given the common ‘technology’ they employed. We view our smart cities final proposal in a similar light. We have deliberately chosen to deliver bleeding-edge, four-star quality outcomes by utilizing common smart technology, instead of delivering common outcomes by utilizing bleeding-edge, four-star quality smart technology. We believe that this approach will maximize the replicability of our approach – and the spread of smart technology – across Canada.

Our proposal is an onboarding approach to smart cities. Not every community has the resources, staff, equipment, Wi-Fi access, etc. to implement cutting-edge smart technology. There is a need to build STEM knowledge first, through the method developed in our proposal. What good are sensors and data collection if we do not have the knowledge and appropriate cultural lenses to extrapolate meaning from them? Creating a digitally-literate population is, in our opinion, absolutely essential to ensuring long- lasting smart cities – not just a fad technology that is used for a short period of time.

Lasting and impactful community change, through STEM education, and reconnection with culture through language, along with the use of common, newbie-friendly smart technology is of key importance in the overall strategy of facilitating transferability. Our approach to integrating STEM education into a K-12 curriculum is, indeed, transferable; it can be implemented in any school across the country.

This technology will enable cross-generational and cross-cultural collaboration as we build a future of digitally-literate and more culturally whole youth who will lead the smart cities of tomorrow across Canada.

Progress toward our outcomes has already been achieved during the finalist phase. We:

  • organized and facilitated community consultation events, each with a particular community sector focus
  • implemented some changes in organization structure: established teams, roles and responsibilities, etc.
  • begun several pilot projects: story writing; aadsookaanan reconstruction; and Waawaa video production
  • utilized community surveys to determine several baselines
  • set up a framework for data collection and baseline measurement of progress
  • produced prototypes of immersion video overdubbed with audio of Biigtigong’s dialect
  • developed some tools to assess staff training needs
  • researched approaches to and formalized a framework for the reconstruction of our aadsookaanan
  • successfully piloted Makey Makey, Scratch, and at our elementary school
  • formalized our partnerships
  • continued our community engagement sessions with our off-reserve and on-reserve members
  • piloted with our elementary school staff and students a sampling of online classes
  • further developed the interfacing of our Nishnaabe approach to learning and the Growth Mindset Approach
  • continued ‘Waawaa’ immersion video production, evaluation, and instructor professional development